By Jamal Nazrul Islam

This publication is a concise creation to the mathematical facets of the foundation, constitution and evolution of the universe. The publication starts off with a short evaluation of observational cosmology and common relativity, and is going directly to talk about Friedmann types, the Hubble consistent, versions with a cosmological consistent, singularities, the early universe, inflation and quantum cosmology. This booklet is rounded off with a bankruptcy at the far-off way forward for the universe. The e-book is written as a textbook for complicated undergraduates and starting graduate scholars. it is going to even be of curiosity to cosmologists, astrophysicists, astronomers, utilized mathematicians and mathematical physicists.

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**Extra info for An introduction to mathematical cosmology**

**Example text**

This series of hypersurfaces can be labelled by a parameter which may be taken as the proper time of any 37 TLFeBOOK 38 The Robertson–Walker metric Fig. 1. Representation of a typical space-like hypersurface on which galaxies are assumed to lie. galaxy, that is, time as measured by a clock stationary in the galaxy. As we shall see, this deﬁnes a universal time so that a particular time means a given space-like hypersurface on this series of hypersurfaces. An equivalent description, known as Weyl’s postulate (Weyl, 1923) is to assume that the worldlines of galaxies are a bundle or congruence of geodesics in space-time diverging from a point in the (ﬁnite or inﬁnitely distant) past, or converging to such a point in the future, or both.

14 Introduction to general relativity This has, in turn, the consequence that indices can be raised and lowered inside the sign for covariant diﬀerentiation, as follows: A ; ϭA ;, A ; ϭA ;. 2)). At any speciﬁc point a coordinate system can always be chosen so that the ⌫ vanish at the point. 7) it follows that the ﬁrst derivatives of the metric tensor also vanish at this point. This is one form of the equivalence principle, according to which the gravitational ﬁeld can be ‘transformed away’ at any point by choosing a suitable frame of reference.

52) can be written as d4xЈϭJd4x. 56) With the use of the usual notation xЈ, ϵѨxЈ/Ѩx, we can write the transformation rule for the covariant metric tensor as follows: ␣ ϭxЈ ,␣ ЈxЈ,. 55) we consider this as a matrix equation, where in the right hand side the ﬁrst matrix has its rows speciﬁed by ␣ and columns by , in the second the rows are given by and columns by , while in the third matrix the rows and columns are given respectively by and . As before, we denote by the determinant of the covariant tensor ␣ considered as a matrix.