By John Ferling
It used to be a competition of titans: John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, heroes of the progressive period, as soon as intimate neighbors, now icy antagonists locked in a fierce conflict for the way forward for the USA. The election of 1800 used to be a thunderous conflict of a crusade that climaxed in a impasse within the Electoral university and ended in a problem within which the younger republic teetered at the fringe of cave in.
Adams vs. Jefferson is the gripping account of a turning aspect in American historical past, a dramatic fight among events with profoundly diversified visions of the way the state might be ruled. The Federalists, led by way of Adams, have been conservatives who favorite a powerful significant govt. The Republicans, led through Jefferson, have been extra egalitarian and believed that the Federalists had betrayed the Revolution of 1776 and have been backsliding towards monarchy. The crusade itself was once a barroom brawl every piece as ruthless as any smooth contest, with mud-slinging, scare strategies, and backstabbing. The low element got here while Alexander Hamilton revealed a devastating assault on Adams, the pinnacle of his personal celebration, in "fifty-four pages of unremitting vilification." The stalemate within the Electoral university dragged on via dozens of ballots. Tensions ran so excessive that the Republicans threatened civil battle if the Federalists denied Jefferson the presidency. ultimately a mystery deal that modified a unmarried vote gave Jefferson the White apartment. A devastated Adams left Washington earlier than sunrise on Inauguration Day, too embittered even to shake his rival's hand.
With magisterial command, Ferling brings to existence either the outsize personalities and the hotly contested political questions at stake. He exhibits not only why this second was once a milestone in U.S. background, yet how strongly the issues--and the passions--of 1800 resonate with our personal time.
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A series of rugged zigzags enabled me to make my way down into the weird under-world of the crevasse. Its chambered hollows were hung with a multitude of clustered icicles, amid which pale, subdued light pulsed and shimmered with indescribable loveliness. Coming again to the surface, I noticed boulders of every size on their journeys to the terminal moraine—journeys of more than a hundred years, without a single stop, night or day, winter or summer. The sun gave birth to a network of sweet-voiced rills that ran gracefully down the glacier, curling and swirling in their shining channels, and cutting clear sections through the porous surface-ice into the solid blue, where the structure of the glacier was beautifully illustrated.
They decided to remain several days, at the least, while I concluded to make an excursion in the mean time to the untouched summit of Ritter. And as the weather was still profoundly calm, and the distance to the foot of the mountain only a little more than a day, I felt that I was running no great risk of being storm-bound. I had explored the adjacent wilderness summer after summer, but my studies thus far had never drawn me to the top of it. But difficulties of this kind only exhilarate the mountaineer.
In these regions the extension of the sea effected by its own action in post-glacial time is scarcely appreciable as compared with that effected by ice-action. Mount Rainier from Paradise Valley—Nisqually Glacier Traces of the vanished glaciers made during the period of greater extension abound on the Sierra as far south as latitude 36°. Even the polished rock surfaces, the most evanescent of glacial records, are still found in a wonderfully perfect state of preservation on the upper half of the middle portion of the range, and form the most striking of all the glacial phenomena.