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By Michael Spivak

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The limit theorems of probability theory establish the law of large numbers and also the limiting probability distribution laws. Above, by considering the principle of concentration with the example of the area of a multidimensional sphere Sn (r ) ⊂ Rn+1 , we obtained at the same time the limiting law of the distribution of this area when the dimen√ sion of the sphere and its radius r = n increase unboundedly. The result obtained here corresponds to the central limit theorem of probability theory.

The area of an elementary spherical shell corresponding to the angular interval (ψ, ψ + dψ) is given by the formula σn−2 (r sin ψ)rdψ = cn−2 (r sin ψ)n−2 rdψ = cn−2 r n−2 sinn−3 ψ r sin ψdψ = = cn−2 r n−2 (1 − ( x/r )2 ) n −3 2 (−dx ). 1) Here σn−2 (ρ) is the area of a (n − 2)-sphere of radius ρ and cn−2 = σn−2 (1). 1) we now find the area of the spherical shell projected onto the interval [ a, b] ⊂ [−r, r ] of the x axis: c n −2 r n −2 b a 1 − ( x/r )2 n −3 2 dx. 1 The ball and sphere in Euclidean space Rn with n 1 47 The ratio of this area to the entire area of the sphere Sn−1 (r ) of radius r is equal to Pn [ a, b] := n −3 b 2 2 dx a 1 − ( x/r ) .

We describe the two principles of thermodynamics in the language of differential forms (Chapter 1). We give an idea on the connection between classical thermodynamics and contact geometry (Chapter 2). Finally, we add an account of statistical physics and say a few words about the quantummechanical side of thermodynamics (Chapter 3). 1) recovers the signal, which is a function f ∈ L2 (R) with compactly supported spectrum of frequencies ν not exceeding W Hertz from the set of sample val1 ues f (tk ) at the points tk = k∆, where ∆ = 2W is the sampling time interval (Nyquist interval), which depends on W.

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